Resources for Racial Equity in Educational Technology

Welcome participants!

Below are a few articles and resources referenced during the workshop. Feel free to share more resources in the comment section below. - Tara

5 Doubts about Data-Driven Schools (Anya Kamenetz via NPR).

Big Data in Education (Susan Fuhrman via Education Update Online).

Black Teens are Breaking the Internet and Seeing None of the Profits (Doreen St. Felix via The Fader).

Can Computer Programs Be Racist and Sexist? (Laura Sydell via NPR).

Children's Internet Protection Act (Federal Communications Commission).

Critical Questions for Big Data (danah boyd & Kate Crawford).

Digital Redlining, Access, and Privacy (Chris Gilliard via Common Sense Education).

Facilitating Learning (Rhonda Robinson, Michael Molenda, & Landra Rezabek, 2008).

"I feel like a despised insect: Coming of age under surveillance in New York (Jeanne Theorharis via The Intercept_).

Internet Acceptable Use and Safety Policy (NYC DOE).

ISTE 2016: Technology Alone Cannot Create Social Equality (Meg Conlan via Ed Tech Magazine).

Poverty, Race, and America's Educational System: Part 1: School Discipline and Students of Color (Firesteel).

Race After the Internet (Lisa Nakamura & Peter Chow-White, Eds., 2012).

Racial Equity Resource Guide (W.K. Kellogg Foundation).

The Blockchain for Education: An Introduction (Audrey Watters).

The Ideology of Blockchain (for Education) (Audrey Watters).

Using Technology Wisely: The Keys to Success in Schools (Harold Wenglinsky, 2005).

Why Do Pokemon Avoid Black Neighborhoods? (Cory Doctorow via BoingBoing).

Glossary of Terms

Big data - cultural, technological, and scholarly phenomenon that rests on the interplay of maximizing computational power and algorithmic accuracy to gather, analyze, link, and compare large data sets; drawing on large data sets to identify patterns in order to make economic, social, technical, and legal claims; the widespread belief that large data sets offer a higher form of intelligence and knowledge that can generate insights that were previously impossible, with the aura of truth, objectivity, and accuracy (boyd & Crawford, 2012).

Blockchain - a distributed database that provide an unalterable, (semi-)public record of digital transactions. Each block aggregates a timestamped batch of transactions to be included in the ledger – or rather, in the blockchain. Each block is identified by a cryptographic signature. These blocks are all back-linked; that is, they refer to the signature of the previous block in the chain, and that chain can be traced all the way back to the very first block created. As such, the blockchain contains an un-editable record of all the transactions made (Watters, 2016).

Digital divide - refers to the gap in computer access between affluent and poor, or white and minority, students (Wenglinsky, 2005).

Digital redlining - A set of policies, investment decisions, and IT practices that actively create and maintain class boundaries through structures that discriminate against specific groups. Digital redlining is a verb, the 'doing' of difference, a 'doing' whose consequences reinforce existing class structures (Gilliard, 2016).

Educational technology - the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using, and managing appropriate technological processes and resources (Robinson, Molenda, & Rezabek, 2008).

Racial equity - the condition that would be achieved if one's racial identity no longer predicted, in a statistical sense, how one fares. Racial equity is one part of racial justice, and included in the work to address root causes of inequities, not just their manifestations. This includes the elimination of policies, practices, attitudes and cultural messages that reinforce differential outcomes by race or fail to eliminate them (W.K. Kellogg Foundation).  

Tara L. Conley Racial Literacy Roundtables Talk

Screen shot 2013-10-15 at 9.40.19 PM On Monday, October 14, 2013 I presented at this year's first Racial Literacy Roundtables talk at Teachers College Columbia University. I presented on my current and ongoing research involving participatory design and working with young people who are involved in foster care and juvenile/criminal justice systems to develop TXT CONNECT, a free mobile platform for court-involved youth in NYC.

RLR Whiteboard

Highlights from the talk include:

  • Ways to conceptualize and re-imagine participation.
  • Reviewing youth demographic statistics in NYC, highlighting, in particular, the disproportionate number of Black and brown youth involved in juvenile/criminal justice systems and foster care.
  • Reflecting on what it means to engage multiple stakeholders in the process of designing a technical and digital artifact with and for young people who are often disconnected and lack reliable access to information.

Screen shot 2013-10-15 at 9.34.02 PM

Some notable statistics (references included in slides below):

  • 25% of youth (< 18-years-old) in NYC are considered Black/African American, yet make up 65% of the juvenile justice population in NYC, and 59% of the foster care population in NYC.
  • 35.5% of youth (< 18-years-old) in NYC are considered Hispanic, and make up 30% of the juvenile justice population in NYC, and 27.4% of the foster care population in NYC.
  • White youth make up 25% of the youth population in NYC, yet make up less than 5% of the juvenile justice and foster care population in NYC

This was the first time I was able to present my research, in depth, to my peers and others in the academic community. The conversations that emerged from the chat were inspiring, particularly as it had to do with the ways educators and researchers are currently thinking about how social and digital media can, and ought to be used as meaningful tools in the classroom and beyond.

So often we assume media are something young people simply and only consume, but in fact, we're learning that young people are also integral mediamakers and designers in the "stuff" they use.

Below is a highlight video from the talk.

Tara L. Conley Racial Literacy Roundtables Talk from Media Make Change on Vimeo.

I've also posted my presentation slides HERE.

For more information on my current research, please visit

Credits: Lalitha Vasudevan (photography and videography), Joe Riina-Ferrie (videography)


Participatory Design and Young People as 'Possibilities Personified'

Screen shot 2013-03-31 at 3.14.29 AM

 Tara L. Conley, Teachers College, Columbia University (March 29, 2013)

This past Friday, I had the opportunity to speak about participatory design and fostering critical connections in our work with young people. Though the talk was meant as a brief audition for TEDxTeachersCollege next month, I was able to share some of the work I've been doing with young people involved in building a text line for court-involved youth in NYC.

As I continue to work with young people on the mobile initiative, I'm beginning to understand why it's important for us, as educators, designers, researchers, and social entrepreneurs to involve young people in the work that we're doing. Particularly if your mission is to actively support communities and young people, it's important to involve motivated young leaders because, quite frankly, they know more than we do about what's best for their neighborhoods, families, and local cohorts. It's sounds simple enough but you'd be surprised at how much we end up not actively involving young people in work that is meant to support their growth.

In this brief 5-minute talk I outline some of the reasons why I believe that participating in collaborative working groups is an effective strategy for community building and social entrepreneurship. I also touch on the idea that the process of building and creating technology platforms with others may result in a kinship formation experience where we not only produce knowledge together but we do so in a way that can yield sustainable outcomes for surrounding communities.

A few key definitions and insights that inform my work thus far:

Participatory Design

"Participatory design is a hybrid experience where participants are neither user or developer but both simultaneously. Characteristics of PD experiences include 'challenging assumptions, learning reciprocally, and creating new ideas, which emerge through negotiation and co-creation of identities, working languages, understandings, and relationships, and polyvocal (many-voiced) discussions across and through differences'" (Muller; 2002).


“‘Believing in the potential of everyone to design is more egalitarian than believing in exclusive talents and specialised roles. However, this is not the same as involving every potential user in every design project, or at all stages, or in the same way as the next person" (Light & Luckin, 2008).

It is not the hand that makes the designer, it’s the eye. Learning to design is learning to see . . .Our experience sharpens our eyes to certain perceptions and shapes what we expect to see, just as what we expect to see shapes our experience. Our reality is perspectival. Although we don’t perceive and sense things that a more experienced practitioner can, we can learn. (Reichenstein; 2013).

Transcript from my talk below.

Thank you.

I’d like to share a quote with you from author Margaret Wheatley, who received her doctorate in education from Harvard University. She wrote in 2006,

“Rather than worry about critical mass, our work is to foster critical connections.  We don't need to convince large numbers of people to change; instead, we need to connect with kindred spirits.  Through these relationships, we will develop the new knowledge, practices, courage, and commitment that lead to broad-based change”

I recently received a Media Ideation Fellowship grant that will allow me to begin developing a text line for court-involved youth in New York City. The text line will support young people involved in foster care, juvenile justice, and criminal justice systems so that can use their cell phones to access educational, vocational, and intervention support resources.

I’m currently working directly with young people who serve on the text line youth advisory board to develop the mobile initiative.

For the TEDxTeachersCollege conference, I would like to talk about the significance of collaborative working groups between young people and social entrepreneurs, and the exponential impact this particular collaborative cohort has on the broader community.

I want to talk about how we can, as Margaret Wheatley amply describes, foster critical connections through our work and by way of democratic working processes, and through what Oliver Reichenstein articulates as an understanding that learning to design (in what ever form that may take for educators, scholars, and designers) means learning to see. Learning to see.

To that end, I want to discuss how we might envision and situate technology artifacts as points of entry where community building and kinships can emerge. And how we might re-conceptualize the process of building and incorporating technologies in learning spaces with members of communities we wish to serve.

While working with the youth advisory board over the past four weeks, I’m beginning to notice these sort of third space, or hybrid, themes come about, and I want to share these themes with the TC community as a way to inform our teaching, researching, and design practices.

Some of the themes I’ve noticed include:

  • The idea that social entrepreneurship is fundamentally participatory
  • That participatory design methods as defined by Mueller look more and more like kinship formations
  • Also the idea that critical connections yield knowledge production that is local, specific, and sustainable
  • And the idea that hybridization does not only apply to theory and practice but also applies to entrepreneurship and learning
  • And finally, it is the notion that education is a concept we can actually define through democratic learning processes and, most importantly, through love.

Before I go, I want to share with you a story. I was walking home with one of the youth advisory board members recently. And she told me that when she first heard about the opportunity to be part of the development of the text line she knew she wanted to be involved. She told me that she thought the text line would be a great way for court-involved youth to access resources that were usually difficult to impossible to access. Then she said to me, “You know, when I first head that someone was developing a text line for court-involved youth, my first thought was, ‘Wow! Someone out there actually cares about fosters kids.’”

That was my ah-ha moment. That was when I realized why it’s so important for us to develop strategies and create spaces where we involved young people in our teaching, researching, and design methods.

Because young people are not statistics or bodies to fill up classrooms, residential facilities, or prisons. They are media makers. They are developers. They are designers. Young people, especially the one I work with, are possibilities personified. Thank you.


Fouche, R. (2013). “From Black Inventors to One Laptop Per Child: Exploring a Racial Politics of Technology” in Race after the Internet, L. Nakamura & P. A. Chow-White (EDs). (pp. 61-83)

Kensing, F. and J. Blomberg. (1998). Participatory Design: Issues and Concerns

Light, A., and Luckin, R. (2008). Designing for social justice: People, technology, and learning. Futurelab:

Muller, M. J. Participatory design: The third space in HCI. In J. A. Jacko and A. Sears (Eds.), The Human Computer Interaction Handbook: Fundamentals, Evolving Technologies and Emerging Applications, Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, 2002, 1051–1068.

Reinchenstein, O. (2013). Learning to see.